prenatal care antenatal care

Prenatal Care for Healthy Pregnancy

What is Prenatal Care?

Prenatal care encompasses the healthcare received during pregnancy, vital for ensuring the well-being of both the expectant mother and her baby. To ensure a healthy pregnancy journey, consider the following:

  • Early Prenatal Care: As soon as you suspect or confirm your pregnancy, promptly schedule a visit with your healthcare provider.
  • Regular Checkups: Attend all scheduled prenatal checkups recommended by your doctor. Each checkup holds significance in monitoring your health and the baby’s development.
  • Follow Medical Guidance: Adhering to your healthcare provider’s guidance is paramount.

Why is Prenatal Care Essential?

Prenatal care serves as a crucial safeguard for the health of both you and your baby. Failing to seek prenatal care increases the risk of adverse outcomes. Babies born to mothers without prenatal care are three times more likely to have low birth weight and five times more likely to face mortality compared to babies whose mothers receive proper care.

Regular checkups enable early detection and intervention for potential health issues, improving the chances of effective treatment. Furthermore, these visits offer an opportunity for doctors to counsel expectant mothers on lifestyle choices that can contribute to a healthier start in life for their unborn children.

Steps to Take before Pregnancy

Are you considering pregnancy and wondering how to ensure your well-being during this significant journey? The key is to focus on preconception health, which entails understanding how health factors and risks might impact both you and your future child once you conceive. Certain foods, habits, and medications have the potential to harm your baby, even before conception. Additionally, preexisting health conditions can influence your pregnancy.

To safeguard your health and that of your baby, it’s crucial to consult your healthcare provider before attempting to conceive. Women should ideally embark on pregnancy preparations before becoming sexually active, allowing themselves a minimum of three months to prepare.

Important things you can do before getting pregnant are:

  1. Folic Acid Supplementation: Begin taking 400 to 800 micrograms (400 to 800 mcg or 0.4 to 0.8 mg) of folic acid daily at least three months before attempting pregnancy. This helps lower the risk of certain brain and spinal birth defects. While some foods contain folic acid, achieving the recommended intake often requires a vitamin supplement.
  2. Lifestyle Adjustments: Cease smoking and alcohol consumption, seeking guidance from your healthcare provider if needed.
  3. Health Conditions Management: If you have any medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, depression, high blood pressure, obesity, thyroid disease, or epilepsy, ensure they are well-managed. Keep your vaccinations up to date as well.
  4. Medication and Supplement Review: Discuss all over-the-counter and prescription medications, including dietary or herbal supplements, with your doctor. Some substances are unsafe during pregnancy, but it’s essential to manage any medical conditions that require medication.
  5. Minimize exposure to toxic substances or hazardous materials both at home and work, which could pose a risk. Steer clear of chemicals and contact with cat or rodent feces.
  6. Optimize your BMI: Try to achieve a healthy BMI before embarking on pregnancy.

Do’s and Don’ts During Pregnancy

During pregnancy, taking care of both yourself and your growing baby is of utmost importance. Follow these guidelines for a safe and healthy pregnancy journey:

Health Care: Do’s and Don’ts

  • Do Get Early and Regular Prenatal Care: Whether it’s your first or subsequent pregnancy, consistent healthcare is crucial. Regular check-ups ensure both you and your baby’s well-being. Early detection of any issues allows for prompt action.
  • Do Take Folic Acid/vitamins: Consume a daily multivitamin or prenatal vitamin containing 400 to 800 micrograms (400 to 800 mcg or 0.4 to 0.8 mg) of folic acid. This is especially vital in the early stages of pregnancy but should continue throughout.
  • Do Consult Your Doctor About Medications: Always seek your doctor’s advice before discontinuing or starting any medications. Some substances are unsafe during pregnancy, including over-the-counter and herbal products.
  • Do Avoid X-rays: If dental work or diagnostic tests are necessary, inform your dentist or doctor about your pregnancy for added precautions.
  • Do Get a Flu Shot: Protect yourself from the flu by getting vaccinated. Pregnant women are more susceptible to severe flu symptoms and may require hospitalization.
  • Do get the required vaccinations: Flu and Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria and whooping cough) vaccines are recommended in pregnancy.

Food: Do’s and Don’ts

  • Do Eat a Variety of Healthy Foods: Prioritize fruits, vegetables, whole grains, calcium-rich foods, and low-saturated-fat options. Adequate fluid intake, especially water, is essential.
  • Do Ensure Nutrient Intake: Obtain all necessary nutrients daily, including iron to prevent anemia, which is linked to preterm birth and low birth weight. Consider taking a daily prenatal vitamin or iron supplement as recommended by your doctor.
  • Do Practice Food Safety: Guard against foodborne illnesses like toxoplasmosis and listeria. Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly, avoid undercooked meats and fish, and handle, cook, and store food correctly.
  • Don’t Consume High-Mercury Fish: Avoid fish with high mercury levels, such as swordfish, king mackerel, shark, and tilefish.

Lifestyle: Do’s and Don’ts

  • Do Maintain Healthy Weight Gain: Consult your doctor to determine the appropriate weight gain for a healthy pregnancy.
  • Don’t Smoke, Drink Alcohol, or Use Drugs: These substances can cause long-term harm or fatality to your baby. Seek your doctor’s assistance to quit.
  • Do Engage in Moderate Exercise: Aim for at least 2 hours and 30 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week, spread across multiple sessions. If you were active before pregnancy, you can continue with your doctor’s approval.
  • Don’t Overheat: Avoid very hot baths, hot tubs, and saunas.
  • Do Prioritize Sleep and Stress Management: Ensure sufficient rest and adopt stress-reduction strategies.
  • Do Educate Yourself: Read, watch informative materials, attend childbirth classes, and seek advice from experienced mothers.
  • Do Consider Childbirth Education Classes: These classes prepare both you and your partner for the upcoming birth.

Environment: Do’s and Don’ts

  • Do Avoid Harmful Chemicals: Steer clear of chemicals like insecticides, solvents, lead, mercury, and paint (including fumes). When in doubt about product safety, consult your doctor.
  • Do Take Toxoplasmosis Precautions: If you have a cat, inquire about toxoplasmosis prevention. Avoid handling cat litter and wear gloves while gardening.
  • Do Prevent Rodent Contact: Stay away from rodents, including pet rodents, their urine, droppings, or nesting materials, as they can transmit harmful viruses to your baby.
  • Do Maintain Good Hygiene: Frequent handwashing helps minimize illness risks.
  • Don’t Expose Yourself to Secondhand Smoke: Avoid environments with secondhand smoke, which can harm you and your baby.

Should I Take Folic Acid daily if I don’t want to get Pregnant Now?

Absolutely! Birth defects involving the brain and spine typically develop during the earliest phases of pregnancy, often before a woman is aware of her pregnancy. By the time pregnancy is confirmed, it may be too late to prevent these birth defects. Moreover, approximately half of all pregnancies are unplanned. Consequently, every woman capable of becoming pregnant should ensure a daily intake of 400 to 800 mcg of folic acid.

How Frequent Are Prenatal Visits?

The importance of prenatal care cannot be overstated. As soon as you confirm your pregnancy, scheduling your first obstetric appointment is critical. Your obstetrician will verify your pregnancy and tailor a prenatal care plan based on its risk level. Depending on the risk assessment, your doctor will provide a schedule of recommended prenatal visits to ensure a healthy pregnancy. Generally, these visits occur as follows:

  • Approximately once a month from weeks 4 through 28 of your pregnancy.
  • Biweekly appointments during weeks 28 through 36.
  • Weekly checkups from week 36 until birth.

If you’re aged 35 or older or have a high-risk pregnancy, you may have more frequent visits.

In UK , there should be 10 antenatal care visits if you are pregnant for the first time. In subsequent pregnancies at least 7 visits are essential in low risk pregnancies

If you feel healthy, Do you still need prenatal care?

Feeling healthy is no reason to skip prenatal care. It’s not just about your health; it directly affects your baby’s well-being. Throughout pregnancy, your obstetrician will conduct routine screenings for potential health threats to both you and your baby. These screenings commence in the first trimester and persist until delivery, emphasizing the importance of early prenatal care initiation.

What Happens During Prenatal Appointments?

During your initial prenatal visit, anticipate the following:

  • A thorough review of your medical history, including any prior illnesses, surgeries, or pregnancies.
  • Inquiry about your family’s medical history.
  • A comprehensive physical examination,
  • Blood and urine sample collection for laboratory analysis.
  • Measurement of vital signs, including blood pressure, height, and weight.
  • Calculation of your due date.
  • Addressing your questions and concerns.

At your first appointment, don’t hesitate to ask questions and discuss any pregnancy-related matters. Seek information on maintaining your well-being.

Subsequent prenatal visits will likely be shorter. Your doctor will monitor your health and ensure your baby’s proper growth. Most visits will encompass:

  • Blood pressure measurement.
  • Monitoring your weight gain.
  • Abdominal measurement to assess your baby’s growth once visible.
  • Evaluation of your baby’s heart rate.
  • Ultrasounds for the fetus( dating scan, anomaly scan, growth scans)

Throughout your pregnancy, routine tests will be conducted. Some tests are recommended for all expectant mothers, such as screening for anemia, blood type, HIV, and other factors. Additional tests may be proposed based on your age, personal and family medical history, ethnic background, or earlier test results.

The Impact of Prenatal Care

Did you know that mothers who receive prenatal care are less likely to have babies with low birth weights? Furthermore, fetal and infant mortality rates are five times higher among women who do not seek prenatal care.

Considerations for Pregnancy in Late 30s

If you’re in your late 30s and contemplating pregnancy, there are a few important considerations to keep in mind. While most women in this age group have healthy pregnancies, it’s essential to be proactive. Here’s what you should do:

  1. Regular Doctor Visits: Start by scheduling regular appointments with your doctor before you begin trying to conceive. Your healthcare provider can offer guidance on preparing your body for pregnancy and discuss how age might impact the process.
  2. Prenatal Care: Once you become pregnant, consistent prenatal care is crucial. Due to your age, your doctor may recommend additional tests to monitor your baby’s health closely.
  3. Fertility Awareness: Keep in mind that fertility tends to decrease with age. While many women in their late 30s have no trouble getting pregnant, it’s wise to seek medical advice if you haven’t conceived after six months of trying. Infertility is defined as the inability to become pregnant after a year of trying, and if you or your partner suspect infertility, consult your doctor. They can provide guidance and options for couples facing fertility challenges.
  4. Miscarriage Concerns: If you experience recurrent miscarriages, book for earlier prenatal care, follow your doctor’s instructions regarding medications and specialized investigations.

Remember that while age can pose some challenges, it’s entirely possible to have a successful and healthy pregnancy in your late 30s or early 40s with proper care and support.


Dr Sobia Mohyuddin

MCPS, FCPS, MRCOG, Consultant Obstetrics & Gynaecology

Doctor Sobia Mohyuddin is a highly skilled and experienced Obstetrician and Gynecologist, with 25 years of training and experience in renowned, large institutions. She holds the position of Associate Professor and Fellow at the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. She is also a member of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (UK).